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Open Access: Types of Open Access

Green OA

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Green Open Access

Self-archiving or publishing in an institutional or subject repository, website, or scholarly collaboration network.

Publishing in Green OA is free of charge, but most publishers will impose an embargo period before allowing OA publishing of the article, or allow sharing the pre-print version of the article.


Bronze OA

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Bronze Open Access

Making the publication available on the publisher's website free of charge, but with no license information and for an undefined period of time.

The problem here is that the users do not know for how long the work will be available freely online, and sharing or reusing the work is restricted or not possible due to the missing of the license information.

Gold OA

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Gold Open Access

Publishing in Open Access or hybrid journals, usually with copyright restrictions (CC license).

The author may pay an article processing fee, but there is no embargo period limitation, and applying a CC license enables the author to determine how others may reuse or share the work.


Black OA

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Black Open Access

Refers to illegal copies of the publication deposited in illegal repositories violating the publisher copyright agreement. 






Circulation Desk Assistant

Araz Margossian's picture
Araz Margossian
AGBU Papazian Library, 40 Marshal Baghramyan Ave.,
Yerevan 0019, Armenia.
Phone: (+374 60) 61-27-64


Armine Melikyan's picture
Armine Melikyan

eLearning and eServices librarian

Head of Reference and Circulation Services

Hasmik Galstyan's picture
Hasmik Galstyan
American University of Armenia
AGBU Papazian Library, 40 Marshal Baghramyan Ave.,
Yerevan 0019, Armenia.
Phone: (+374 60) 61-27-62

Gratis OA vs. Libre OA

Gratis Open Access

Making the publications available online free of charge with some copyright or license restrictions.

Libre Open Access

Making the publication available online free of charge with no or little copyright restrictions.